Diode lasers are excellent for soft tissue surgery and have recently been developed for calculus detection in combination with a laser fluorescence probe. It is difficult to compare the many studies in terms of protocols and types of lasers used, but in some lasers may remove some calculus and plaque to a level equivalent to that of hand or ultrasonic instrumentation. When the beam of photons reaches biological tissue it can be reflected, scattered, absorbed or transmitted to the surrounding tissues. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. 1. Consensus report of Group B, Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mechanical Plaque Control, Toothbrushing frequency as it relates to plaque development and gingival health, Relationship between the plaque removal efficiency of a manual toothbrush and brushing force, Current concepts in toothbrushing and interdental cleaning, A comparative study of electric toothbrushes for the effectiveness of plaque removal in relation to toothbrushing duration. They were able to show that subgingival recolonization of periopathogens was delayed and reduced in the test groups, as well as the degree of inflammation. One suggestion about brushing methods is to modify the patient’s existing technique to make sure it is thorough, methodical and removes as much plaque as possible rather than teaching the patient a completely new technique. It is important to ensure that hand instruments are sharp when used as this improves efficiency, is more likely to remove deposits rather than burnish them and reduces the amount of force used, reducing fatigue. Cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression in fibroblasts from peri‐implantitis lesions in response to viable orphyromonas gingivalis. More recently, in a prospective study, Schwarz et al.40 evaluated its use against hand scaling and root planing finding an equivalent level of subgingival calculus removal. Dynamics of the immune response, Effects of single‐visit full‐mouth ultrasonic debridement versus quadrant‐wise ultrasonic debridement, Full‐mouth ultrasonic debridement versus quadrant scaling and root planing as an initial approach in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, Clinical outcomes of quadrant root planing versus full‐mouth root planing, Microbiological outcomes of quadrant versus full‐mouth root planing as monitored by real‐time PCR, Periodontal debridment with povidine‐iodine in periodontal treatment: short‐term clinical and biochemical observations, Full‐mouth disinfection for the treatment of adult chronic periodontitis. For optimal treatment results, systemic risk factors must be modified or eliminated. Lasers are named by the element that is stimulated to create the beam, which is collimated and of a single wavelength and colour. However, most people do not brush well, leaving substantial amounts of plaque behind.10 An increased frequency is recommended and allows regular application of toothpastes containing fluorides or anti‐plaque agents. The frequency of brushing is traditionally twice a day. Ultrasonic devices can be further divided into piezoelectric and magnetostrictive. Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory destructive disease initiated by the microbial biofilm in a susceptible host. They showed significant improvement in both groups, but failed to show that FMD produced a better result.23 When the microflora was analysed they could not show that FMD resulted in greater reduction in the bacteria.24 In a third paper, they reported both therapies were associated with a reduction in antibody titre and an increase in avidity, but no significant differences between test and control groups.25 The only difference they reported was that the FMD group reported more post‐SRP pain.23. Both have no long‐term effect on the commensal flora and the microflora does not seem to become resistant to them. Actualización en medicina de familia: patología periodontal. Cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression in fibroblasts from peri‐implantitis lesions in response to viable orphyromonas gingivalis. A number of papers have reported a reduction in the amount of alveolar bone loss or gingival inflammation compared to control groups.47-52 However, widespread use of NSAIDs has not been widely reported, perhaps due to minimal clinical advantage produced, reports demonstrating no or little effect or side effects that outweigh the benefits. At sites 7 mm+ the changes were the greatest with a reduction in PD of 1.2–2.9 mm on average and a gain in AL of 0.5–1.6 mm. The purpose of this review was to assess recent changes. Modern technology has made removal of microbial deposits by the patient and dental professionals more efficient. Non-surgical chemotherapeutic treatment strategies for the management of periodontal diseases. Reports of the efficacy of early electric toothbrushes were carefully guarded as they did not show much, if any, superiority to manual brushes. Other more subtle systemic and environmental issues ma… Wound biofilms: Lessons learned from oral biofilms. This has led to looking at other ways to control the plaque accumulation, especially the use of chemicals such as antimicrobials and antiseptics. Mouthwashes could also be considered in patients who are medically compromised, have a handicap that prevents good oral hygiene, high‐risk caries patients, orthodontic patients, and for oral malodour.16. As with brushing, advice should be tailored to the patient and the most appropriate device for the size of the interproximal space chosen. Non-surgical periodontal therapy is an umbrella term used to describe all the non-surgical methods by which periodontal disease can be treated. Toothbrushes do not clean interproximally and interdental cleaning is poorly performed by people in general.13 Plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and periodontal disease are more pronounced interproximally than on other surfaces.14 There are many interdental cleaning aids available and are, most commonly, floss (or tape), woodsticks or interdental brushes (Fig 4). The host immune response toward periodontal pathogens helps to sustain periodontal disease and eventual alveolar bone loss. While the test subjects experienced greater improvements in clinical parameters, the differences were statistically significant, but not clinically significant. Some are under the patient’s control, and may, therefore, require lifestyle changes to achieve significant modification. Subgingival periodontal pathogens before and after scaling by real-time polymerase chain reaction of non-surgical periodontal treatment therapy 10! 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